Investigation of Chloramine Disinfection at Several U.S. Water Utilities

Last Modified: Nov 18, 2009


  • Katie Hoek - Hazen and Sawyer

Compliance with the requirements of the Stage 2 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule has created an increase in the number of utilities switching, or considering a switch, to secondary disinfection with chloramine. A switch in disinfectant requires extensive investigation to fully understand the advantages, issues, best management practices and costs associated with any new disinfection scheme. The switch to chloramine introduces several operational and maintenance changes that can be used for best management of water supply facilities and distribution systems.

As part of a study conducted by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection to investigate compliance options with the Stage 2 D/DBP Rule, a utility survey was conducted. The purpose of this survey was to identify the range of possible system changes and water quality issues that must be managed in order to implement a successful chloramination program. The survey was conducted to help provide an understanding of chloramination in several water systems, methods of implementation, and operation as well as the outcomes of chloramination, if any, in each distribution system.

Detailed interviews were conducted with 13 large U.S. water utilities. The talk will discuss the results of the survey, describing consistencies in experience, significant issues and lessons learned in regards to the use of chloramine as a secondary disinfectant. Each system was asked to report on the history of chloramine use in their distribution system, their chloramination facilities, the dosages and types of chemicals used to make chloramine, their operational procedures, the environmental review required for their facility, associated public health impacts, the advantages and disadvantages of a chloramination system, and source water quality.

For a copy of the full paper, please contact the author at

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