Estrogenic Activity in U.S. Drinking Waters: A Relative Exposure Comparison

Last Modified: Dec 21, 2010


  • Benjamin D. Stanford, PH.D. - Hazen and Sawyer
  • Rebecca A. Trenholm, Ph.D., Janie C. Holady, Brett J. Vanderford, and Shane A. Snyder, Ph.D. - Southern Nevada Water Authority

Expanding population, limited access to freshwater, and continued growth in the manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries, increase the potential for exposure to a plethora of compounds through air, food, and water. Advances in analytical technology enable the scientific community to observe and quantify chemical contaminants in air and water at miniscule levels (parts per trillion and lower). Such technological advances have allowed researchers to detect trace levels of organic contaminants around the world in matrices ranging from food to air to dust to water, yet the consequences of our exposure to mixtures of these pollutants at low levels from multiple sources is still not fully understood.

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