Hexavalent Chromium Treatment Strategies and Tools

Research on hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) removal was conducted for more than a decade at the City of Glendale (CA) to investigate feasible treatment technologies and provide information for the new maximum contaminant level (MCL) recently issued by California.

Reduction/Coagulation/Filtration (RCF) treatment process showing the pressure filters in the background and rapid mix tank for coagulation (100gpm) at a test facility in Glendale.

Ying Wu of Hazen and Sawyer inspecting a microfiltration (MF) unit tested as part of the RCF process in Glendale.

A sample comparison of the estimated annualized costs of the WBA and RCF technologies. Costs are for 100% utilization of treatment and the range reflects potential treatment goals of 1 ppb (high end) to 25 ppb (low end).

(LOS ANGELES, CA – August 23, 2013) – The Water Research Foundation (WaterRF), in partnership with Hazen and Sawyer, is working on several projects to help utilities better understand the costs associated with removing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from drinking water. This research comes as California has just announced its draft maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Cr(VI) of 10 ppb and as the U.S. EPA is evaluating the need to develop a national MCL beyond the current MCL for total chromium.

Hazen and Sawyer staff identified and tested the only two implementations of two technologies, weak base anion exchange (WBA) and reduction/coagulation/filtration (RCF), working with our client the City of Glendale (CA). We are currently leading and are key team members of follow-up studies on technology applicability and cost in several Water Research Foundation studies, including WaterRF #4450, where we are acting as Co-Principal Investigator on bench testing of three technologies in 10 different water qualities and development of cost estimates.

As part of project #4450, a Cost Estimation Tool for Cr(VI) Removal from Groundwater was developed. This tool will help estimate a range of potential costs to remove Cr(VI) from water based on system-specific information about the impacted well, water quality, residuals handling, and different treatment options.

“As Cr(VI) becomes an increasing concern for utilities, we continue to research treatment technologies and tools so our clients can find the optimal solution for treatment,” said Hazen and Sawyer’s Nicole Blute, one of the key researchers on the project. “Each technology has different advantages and drawbacks, and we are dedicated to helping each utility find the best methodology for their circumstances.”

To discuss how the draft regulation affects your utility, please contact Nicole Blute at nblute@hazenandsawyer.com. Hazen and Sawyer provides compliance planning, budgeting, program management, and design of system improvements.

Since our founding in 1951, Hazen and Sawyer has focused on two things: providing safe drinking water and controlling water pollution. Our range of services encompasses the planning, design, and construction management of water and wastewater-related projects – from clean water treatment, storage, and distribution to wastewater and stormwater collection, treatment, and reuse.

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