Applicability of Ozone and Biological Activated Carbon for Potable Reuse

(RALEIGH, NC – May 7, 2014) – Ben Stanford is among the authors of an article recently published in Ozone: Science & Engineering.

The article, titled “Applicability of Ozone and Biological Activated Carbon for Potable Reuse”, discusses the case study of the Upper San Gabriel Valley Municipal Water District in California. The district is considering groundwater replenishment as a potential strategy to augment its potable water supply.

This case study demonstrates the broad applicability of ozone and biological activated carbon (BAC) for such potable reuse systems based on recently developed criteria and models for bulk organics, trace organic contaminants, disinfection byproducts, and cost. Using an advanced treatment train composed of ozone and BAC (empty bed contact time of 20 min), a 10 million gallon per day potable reuse facility can achieve savings of $25–$51 million in capital costs, $2–$4 million per year in operations and maintenance costs, and 4–8 GWh per year in energy consumption in comparison to alternative treatment trains with reverse osmosis. This ozone-based treatment train is also capable of achieving public health criteria recently developed by the California Department of Public Health and the National Water Research Institute for potable reuse applications.

For more information or a copy of the article, please contact Dr. Stanford at

Since our founding in 1951, Hazen and Sawyer has focused on two things: providing safe drinking water and controlling water pollution. Our range of services encompasses the planning, design, and construction management of water and wastewater-related projects – from clean water treatment, storage, and distribution to wastewater and stormwater collection, treatment, and reuse.

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