Controlling Trace Organic Compounds Using Alternative, Non-FAT Technology for Potable Water Reuse

The full report is available for download on the WE&RF website.

One of the pilots featured in this report is the IPR Pilot Test in Hollywood, FL.

The other pilot featured is a pilot-scale ozone and biofiltration treatment system in Las Vegas.

(NEW YORK, NY – May 31, 2017) – Water Environment & Reuse Foundation report 13-10, titled “Controlling Trace Organic Compounds Using Alternative, Non-FAT Technology for Potable Water Reuses”, has been issued.

A majority of planned potable reuse schemes use reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), known as the full advanced treatment (FAT) technology, to ensure maximum removal of contaminants. Whereas the use of FAT technology is expensive, energy intensive, and requires the disposal of a concentrated brine stream, non-FAT options may provide an alternative approach. This study investigated the potential for non-FAT technology systems – ion exchange (IX), biological activated carbon (BAC), and AOP – to treat wastewater effluent for removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) for potable water reuse applications. This study leveraged the resources of two wastewater agencies to conduct pilot-scale evaluations of combinations of IX, AOPs, and BAC treatments and alternative biologically active media to investigate the removal of TOrCs in a non-FAT system.

The findings presented in this report provide valuable data and insights that are significant to both water and wastewater utilities that are seeking options for managing TOrCs. The information will benefit utilities practicing or implementing reuse by providing treatment guidelines and approaches for assessing the need for additional testing, identifying operational modifications that can improve the performance of existing treatment processes, and determining conditions where advanced treatment might be necessary.


  • Provides information and insights for utilities addressing trace organic contaminants through non- FAT technologies for potable reuse.
  • Extends our knowledge of the synergies of ozone and biofiltration for potable reuse applications and can be applied to many sites considering such non-FAT systems.
  • Demonstrates that that while NDMA removal across biofiltration is expected in most cases, there are situations that can lead to sustained NDMA formation across biofiltration.
  • The full report is available on the WE&RF website.

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