Evaluating the Costs of Reuse Treatment Options
(SEPTEMBER 16, 2014 – RALEIGH, NC) – Dr. Ben Stanford and Cory Hopkins of Hazen and Sawyer are among the co-authors of a new paper recently published in Ozone: Science & Engineering.
The additional removal of trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) provided by advanced water and wastewater treatment inevitably requires additional financial costs, which must be estimated to support utility planning and compare alternatives. This study, entitled “Costs of Advanced Treatment in Water Reclamation”, presents conceptual-level (Class 4) capital and annual operations and maintenance (O&M) cost curve equations to aid evaluations of advanced treatment trains for water reuse. The cost curve equations are broadly applicable to the water reuse community, particularly those interested in ozone-based treatment trains. Unit processes include microfiltration or ultrafiltration membranes (MF/UF), nanofiltration or reverse osmosis membranes (NF/RO), ozone (with or without hydrogen peroxide, H2O2), ultraviolet (UV) treatment with H2O2 (UV/H2O2), and biological activated carbon (BAC); all cost curves are for a unit process and can be added together to obtain costs for a combined treatment train.
The cost curves indicate that at all plant capacities (1 to 500 MGD), membrane treatment (e.g., MF or RO) represents the highest cost unit process, ozone the least, and BAC or UV/H2O2 fall in between. Additionally, the relationship between ozone dose and TOrC removal is discussed with a demonstration of how costs change with increasing ozone dose to achieve desired TOrC destruction.
For more information or a copy of the full paper, please contact Dr. Stanford at email@example.com.
Since our founding in 1951, Hazen and Sawyer has focused on two things: providing safe drinking water and controlling water pollution. Our range of services encompasses the planning, design, and construction management of water and wastewater-related projects – from clean water treatment, storage, and distribution to wastewater and stormwater collection, treatment, and reuse.